Home » From Sunlight to LED: The Science and Benefits Behind Modern Vertical Farming

From Sunlight to LED: The Science and Benefits Behind Modern Vertical Farming

by Yahya Mubarak Imonikhe
From Sunlight to LED: The Science and Benefits Behind Modern Vertical Farming

Vertical farming offers us a variety of innovative methods to produce food by stacking plants in layers within an indoor environment. However, replicating the ideal growing conditions traditionally provided by sunlight can be challenging. A key technology driving the success of vertical agriculture is LED (Light Emitting Diode) lighting. By delivering the precise wavelengths of light needed for photosynthesis, LEDs present numerous advantages over traditional lighting systems.

LEDs are energy-efficient, customizable, and can be controlled to optimize plant growth, making them an ideal choice for indoor agricultural environments. This article explores LED lighting technology and its impact on improving vertical agriculture.

The Science Behind LED Lighting for Plants

Plants utilize light for photosynthesis, the process by which they convert light energy into chemical energy for growth and survival. Different wavelengths of light within the visible spectrum have varying effects on plant development. For instance, red and blue light plays a crucial role in photosynthesis, with red light promoting flowering and fruit production, while blue light influences vegetative growth and stem development. 

The beauty of LED lighting lies in its customizability. Unlike traditional broad-spectrum lights, LEDs can be designed to emit specific wavelengths of light. This allows vertical farming practitioners to tailor the light spectrum delivered to their crops based on their specific needs and growth stages. 

For example, a farmer growing leafy greens might prioritize blue light during the vegetative stage to promote robust leaf growth, then gradually increase red light as the plants mature to encourage flowering.

One of the primary benefits of LED lighting is its energy efficiency. LEDs consume significantly less power than traditional fluorescent lights, which translates to lower operation costs. They also have a longer lifespan which reduces the need for frequent replacement. 

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This durability and efficiency make LED a cost-effective and sustainable option for vertical farmers. With advancements in technology, it could further enhance vertical farming operations.

LED lights in an indoor farm

Source: iStock 

Technological Advancement in LED Lighting

LED lighting has undergone improvement since its invention by Nick Holonyak at General Electric in 1962. A decade after its invention, technological advancement began taking place. Such notable innovations include the introduction of yellow and green LEDs by M. George Craford, a graduate student of Holonyak. 

Commercial applications followed in the late 1970s and improvement in efficiency and brightness surfaced. Soon after, infrared LEDS were developed for use in remote controls and other communication devices. So, it’s safe to say that there have always been improvements in LED lighting. But in agriculture, future advancement in LED technology could take the following forms:

Sensor Integration

The integration of sensors with LED systems allows for automated light management as part of automation in vertical farms. Sensors can monitor factors like plant temperature, humidity, and growth stage, and send signals to adjust the light spectrum accordingly. This level of automation can significantly improve efficiency and reduce human intervention.

Spectrum Customization

A major advantage of LED technology is the ability to customize the light spectrum. Different plants and different stages of plant growth require specific wavelengths of light. For instance, blue light promotes vegetative growth, while red light supports flowering and fruit production. Advanced LED systems allow farmers to tailor the light spectrum to the needs of their crops, enhancing growth and maximizing yields.

Intensity and Duration Control

Modern LED systems offer precise control over light intensity and duration. Programmable LEDs can simulate natural day/night cycles, providing plants with consistent and optimal lighting conditions. This control over light exposure not only boosts plant health and growth rates but also enables farmers to fine-tune their operations for maximum efficiency.

Integration with IoT and Automation

The integration of LED lighting with the Internet of Things (IoT) and automation technologies represents a significant leap forward in vertical farming. Smart LED systems can be remotely monitored and controlled, allowing farmers to adjust light settings based on real-time data. This level of automation facilitates continuous improvement in light management, leading to better crop performance and resource efficiency. It further enhances the application of IoT in agriculture for increased productivity and resource management.

Benefits of LED Lighting in Vertical Farming

Energy Efficiency

LED lighting is renowned for its energy efficiency. According to Arcadia’s blog post, LEDs use up to 70% less energy, significantly reducing electricity costs. This energy efficiency not only makes vertical farming more economically viable but also contributes to a lower carbon footprint, supporting environmental sustainability.

Optimized Growth and Yield

By providing plants with the optimal light spectrum and intensity, LED systems enhance photosynthetic efficiency. This results in faster growth cycles and higher yields, allowing vertical farms to produce more food in less time. 

Furthermore, the ability to customize light conditions means that a wider variety of crops can be grown indoors, expanding the potential of vertical farming.


LED lighting contributes to the sustainability of vertical farming in several ways. Reduced energy consumption translates to lower greenhouse gas emissions. 

Additionally, the controlled environment of vertical farms reduces the need for chemical fertilizers and pesticides, leading to cleaner and safer food production. This sustainable approach to farming addresses the growing concerns over food security and environmental impact.

Improved Crop Quality

The ability to manipulate light spectrums with LEDs allows farmers to not only enhance the yield but also improve the overall quality of their crops. 

Specific light wavelengths can influence factors like taste, texture, and even the nutritional value of fruits and vegetables. For example, research suggests that certain red LED combinations can increase the levels of anthocyanins, antioxidants with health benefits, in some crops.

Precise Control

LED lighting offers unparalleled control over various lighting parameters in a vertical farm setting. Farmers can adjust the light intensity, duration, and uniformity across different layers within the farm. 

This ensures that every plant receives the optimal amount of light, regardless of its position within the vertical structure. This level of control allows for precise manipulation of plant growth and development, leading to more consistent and predictable yields.

Reduced Heat Generation

Unlike traditional lighting methods that generate significant heat, LEDs emit minimal thermal radiation. This is a crucial advantage for vertical farms, where maintaining a controlled and cool environment is essential for optimal plant growth. 

The reduced heat output of LEDs eliminates the need for bulky and energy-intensive cooling systems, leading to lower operational costs and a more efficient growing environment.

vertical agricultural structure with LED lighting

Source: iStock

Challenges and Considerations for Vertical Farmers

The prospect of advanced LED lighting may be mouth-watering. However, there are some challenges to overcome for the successful adoption of the technology. Some of these challenges and considerations include:

Initial Investment Cost

Implementing LED lighting systems can involve a significant upfront investment compared to traditional lighting methods. However, the long-term benefits in terms of energy savings, increased yield, and improved crop quality can offset the initial cost over time.

Technical Expertise

Optimizing LED lighting settings requires a certain level of technical expertise. Farmers need to understand the specific light requirements of their crops and how to adjust the light spectrum, intensity, and duration accordingly. This need for specialized knowledge may necessitate additional training for farm operators and technicians.

Energy Source and Management

Despite their efficiency, LED systems still require a stable energy supply. Ensuring consistent and reliable energy sources is crucial for maintaining optimal light conditions. 

Integrating renewable energy solutions, such as solar panels, can help address this challenge and further enhance the sustainability of vertical farming operations.

What does the future hold for LED technology in vertical farming?

Judging from the rapid advancement in technology, the future of LED lighting in vertical agriculture holds immense potential. Advancements in LED technology are expected to lead to even more precise control over the light spectrum. 

This could allow for the manipulation of specific plant characteristics beyond just growth and yield. For example, LEDs might be used to influence the color, aroma, or even the shelf life of crops.

LED lighting in vertical agriculture

Source: iStock

Additionally, AI may have more roles to play in LED lighting. AI algorithms could analyze real-time data from sensors and environmental monitoring systems to make real-time adjustments to the light spectrum based on the specific needs of the plants. 

This would take data-driven decision-making in vertical farming to a whole new level. It can also be combined with machine learning to continuously improve crop performance and resource use.


If LED lighting technology lives up to its hype, its adoption in vertical farming will increase globally. As a result, it could have a profound impact on global food supply chains, particularly in urban areas where traditional farming is not feasible. It can contribute to food security and urban resilience by ensuring all-year-round production.

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