Home » Agricultural Value Chain: Opportunities for Tech Investors

Agricultural Value Chain: Opportunities for Tech Investors

by Alhassan Muhammed
the agricultural value chain

Many might think the agricultural sector is slow in adopting new technologies. But, it is undergoing a big change, especially in Africa. This change presents huge opportunities for tech investors. The agricultural industry in Africa is becoming more tech-savvy. Tech investors who seize these opportunities can expect big returns. They’ll also drive meaningful change in global food production. This article explores the stages of the agricultural value chain. It covers input supply, production, processing, and distribution. It also highlights the tech innovations in each part. 


Farming has always been the cornerstone of human civilization. It provides the food we eat and the materials for many products. But, the industry faces many challenges. They range from climate change to labor shortages. This requires a wave of innovation. Technology, for instance, has the potential to revolutionise farming. It will solve these challenges directly.

Understanding the Agricultural Value Chain

The agricultural value chain includes all the processes in bringing a product from the farm to the consumer. It consists of four main stages:

1. Input supply: This stage involves providing seeds, fertilisers, and pesticides to farmers. It also includes giving them machinery and other needed inputs.

2. Production: Farming activities such as planting, nurturing, and harvesting crops.

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3. Processing: Converting raw agricultural products into consumable goods.

4. Distribution and Marketing: Transporting and selling the final products to consumers.

Each stage of this chain presents unique challenges and opportunities for technological intervention.

 Opportunities for Tech Investors in The Agricultural Value Chain

Input Supply

The input supply stage is the start of the agricultural value chain. It involves giving farmers the tools and resources they need to cultivate. Technological innovations in this area can significantly enhance productivity and sustainability. Here are five key technological opportunities in input supply:

  • Smart Farming Equipment

    Smart farming equipment refers to advanced machinery. It is integrated with IoT sensors, GPS, and AI. These machines can automate and optimise many farming tasks. They include planting, irrigation, and harvesting. For instance, tractors and harvesters have precision guidance. They can reduce overlaps and cover fields well. This saves time and resources.

    Example: Hello Tractor, a Nigerian start-up, offers an “Uber for tractors” service. This platform connects tractor owners with smallholder farmers. The farmers need access to machinery. This will increase productivity and reduce labor costs. IoT-enabled tractors send real-time data to farmers. The data is on machine performance and field conditions. It ensures the best use of resources.

    • Precision Agriculture

    Precision agriculture involves the use of technology to monitor and manage field variability. Farmers can gather detailed information about their crops and soil. They can do this by using drones, satellites, and soil sensors. This data allows exact use of water, fertilisers, and pesticides. It leads to higher yields and lower costs.

    Example: Farmerline, a Ghanaian agritech company, employs precision agriculture techniques to empower farmers with actionable data. Using mobile technology and data analytics, Farmerline provides farmers with real-time information on weather forecasts, soil health, and crop management practices. They utilise drones and satellite imagery to monitor crop conditions and detect issues such as pest infestations and nutrient deficiencies early.

    • Biotechnology

    Biotechnology in agriculture involves the development of genetically modified (GM) seeds and bio-pesticides. GM seeds are designed to resist pests, diseases, and extreme weather. This helps increase crop yields. Bio-pesticides are natural alternatives to chemical pesticides. They offer a sustainable way to protect crops from pests. The role of biotechnology in agriculture can not be overemphasized. 

    Example: Biotecnika Liberia is an agricultural biotechnology company that focuses on developing GM seeds and bio-pesticides tailored to the specific needs of Liberian farmers. The company’s GM seeds are designed to enhance crop resilience against prevalent pests and diseases in Liberia, such as nematodes and fungal infections. These seeds also incorporate traits for drought tolerance, enabling crops to withstand periods of water scarcity and climate variability.

    • Mobile-Based Advisory Services

    Advisory services for farmers are mobile-based. They provide access to expert advice and information via their phones. These services can include weather forecasts. They also cover pest and disease alerts, market prices, and best practices for crop management. These services deliver timely and useful information. It helps farmers make better decisions.

    Example: iCow, a Kenyan agricultural organization, has developed a mobile-based advisory service to support farmers with real-time information and expert advice. The iCow platform delivers valuable content to farmers’ mobile phones, including weather forecasts, pest and disease alerts, and market prices. It also provides best practices for crop and livestock management, tailored to the specific needs of each farmer

    • Digital Marketplaces for Inputs

    Digital marketplaces connect farmers with suppliers. They sell seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, and other inputs. These platforms give farmers more products at good prices. They also ensure transparent transactions. Additionally, they often include reviews and ratings, helping farmers make informed purchasing decisions.

    Example: Khula, a South African agritech company, has developed a digital marketplace that connects farmers with input suppliers. The Khula Inputs app allows farmers to access a wide range of quality agricultural inputs, including seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, and equipment, sourced from trusted suppliers. The platform offers competitive pricing and transparent transactions, ensuring that farmers get the best products for their needs.

    Investment Potential

    Investing in companies is a good idea. It will foster development of smart farming equipment and precision agriculture technologies. These tools can boost productivity for farmers, leading to high returns. According to PwC, the agricultural sector in Nigeria has the potential to generate over $100 billion annually by 2030, with technology playing a critical role in this growth.

     2. Production

    Technological Opportunities

    • IoT and AI:

    Adding IoT devices and AI to farming can greatly improve monitoring. They can track crop health, soil moisture, and weather. For example, IBM’s Watson Decision Platform for Agriculture is being adapted for use on Nigerian farms. This platform uses AI to analyse data from IoT sensors placed in the fields, providing farmers with real-time insights. These insights help farmers make good choices about irrigation, fertilisation, and pest control. This improves crop yields and reduces resource waste. The use of IoT and AI can also help in predicting and mitigating the impacts of adverse weather conditions, which are common in Nigeria.

    • Robotics:

    Robots are changing farming. They do tasks like planting, weeding, and harvesting. These tasks are repetitive and labor-intensive. This technology not only reduces labour costs but also increases efficiency and precision. Companies like Farmcrowdy are exploring robots. They do this to fix the labour shortages and inefficiencies in Nigerian farming. These robots can work around the clock. They provide a steady level of performance and reduce the need for seasonal labour. Also, robots have AI. They can learn and adapt to tasks. This makes them versatile tools for farming.

    • Vertical Farming:

    Vertical farming and hydroponics are innovative. They allow crops to be grown in stacked layers. This is often in controlled, indoor environments. This method is especially good in urban areas like Lagos where land is scarce and expensive. Vertical farming uses less water and fewer pesticides than traditional farming. It allows for year-round crop production regardless of the weather. Companies and initiatives in Africa are beginning to adopt these methods to meet the growing demand for fresh produce in cities. The controlled environment also reduces the risk of crop diseases and pests. This leads to higher yields and better produce.

    • Mobile Applications and Platforms:

    Mobile technology is playing a crucial role in transforming agriculture in Africa. Mobile applications and platforms provide farmers with access to valuable information and services. For example, platforms like Tingo Mobile offer farmers real-time market prices. They also provide weather forecasts and best farming practices. These platforms also help with mobile payments and microfinancing. They let farmers buy inputs and sell their produce more efficiently. Mobile technology connects farmers to bigger markets and resources. It helps them make more goods and money. Also, mobile training programs can teach farmers the newest farming techniques and tech.

    Investment Potential

    Start-ups focus on IoT, AI, robotics, and mobile agri apps. They are getting much attention from investors. These technologies offer promising growth prospects as they become more widely adopted. According to PRnewswire, the global market for agricultural robots alone is projected to reach $20.6 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 22.8%. In Africa, using these technologies can revolutionise farming and boost productivity and sustainability. They will bring big returns for investors. These innovations will keep changing. They will be critical for meeting the food needs of Nigeria’s growing population.

     3. Processing

    Technological Opportunities

    • Automation and Robotics:

    Automating processing plants can greatly boost efficiency. It also cuts the time needed to turn raw products into goods. Local processing companies like Tomato Jos are investing heavily in automation technologies. These technologies include sorting and grading systems. They also include robotic arms for packaging and cleaning systems. Automation helps to minimise human error, increase production speed, and reduce labour costs. In addition, robots can do repetitive and dangerous tasks. This improves worker safety and product consistency. This shift to automation is great for Africa. As manual processing is slow and labor-intensive.

    • Blockchain Technology:

    Using blockchain can ensure transparency and traceability in the farm supply chain. Consumers demand this more and more. Nigerian start-ups like AgriChain are leading the adoption of blockchain in food supply chains. Blockchain provides a secure and unchangeable ledger of all transactions. It covers the whole supply chain, from farm to table. This ensures that each step is recorded and can be checked. This technology helps track where products come from. It also tracks their journey through the supply chain. It checks their quality and authenticity. This means consumers trust food more. They trust its safety and where it comes from. For producers, it ensures accountability. It also reduces the risk of fraud.

    • Food Safety Technologies:

    Innovations in food safety are critical. They maintain the quality and safety of food products. Pathogen detection sensors and better packaging are at the forefront. They are part of these innovations. The sensors can spot harmful bacteria and contaminants in food. They do it quickly and accurately. This stops foodborne illnesses. These technologies include vacuum sealing and modified atmosphere packaging. They make food last longer. They do this by slowing spoilage and preventing contamination. In Africa, foodborne illnesses are a big concern. The technologies are crucial. They ensure food safety and quality from processing to eating.

    • Cold Chain Logistics: 

    Cold chain logistics uses temperature-controlled storage and transportation. They keep perishable goods fresh. This technology is essential. It keeps fruits, vegetables, dairy, and meat fresh and safe. In the tropics of Africa, high temperatures and poor infrastructure can harm food. Cold chain logistics are vital there. Refrigerated trucks, cold storage, and IoT temperature monitors help build a reliable cold chain. This ensures that perishable goods reach consumers well. It cuts food waste and boosts food security. 

    • Data Analytics and IoT:

    Data analytics and IoT technologies can improve operations. They do this by giving real-time insights into the production process. IoT sensors can monitor machinery performance. They can also track energy usage and product quality. They do this throughout the processing line. We can analyze the data from these sensors. It can help us find inefficiencies, predict maintenance needs, and improve process control. For example, IoT sensors enable predictive maintenance. They can prevent equipment failures, reducing downtime and maintenance costs. In Africa regions where power shortage is a problem, processing facilities may have frequent disruptions. But, data analytics and IoT can greatly improve efficiency and product quality.

    Investment Potential

    Such technologies are crucial for agriculture. They boost processing efficiency, ensure food safety and present lucrative investment opportunities. The food safety testing market alone is expected to reach $24.6 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 7.7%. Investing in automation, blockchain, food safety tech, cold chain logistics, and data analytics can transform the agricultural processing sector. These innovations boost productivity and cut costs. They also address critical challenges related to food safety and quality. As Africa continues to develop its agriculture, these technologies offer big returns for investors and help the food processing industry.

     4. Distribution and Marketing

    Technological Opportunities

    • E-commerce Platforms:

    E-commerce platforms are changing how agricultural products are sold. They do this by connecting farmers directly with consumers. Platforms like Farmcrowdy and Thrive Agric are at the forefront of this transformation in Nigeria. These online platforms enable farmers to list their products and set prices. They can also reach a broader market without the need for intermediaries. This direct-to-consumer approach ensures fair prices for farmers and fresh produce for consumers. Also, the platforms often help with logistics. They assist farmers with packaging, transportation, and delivery. E-commerce platforms reduce middlemen. This lowers costs and raises profits for farmers.

    • Logistics and Supply Chain Optimisation:

    Optimising logistics and supply chains is crucial. It reduces waste and improves delivery efficiency. Companies like Kobo360 are leveraging AI and IoT technologies to enhance their supply chains in Nigeria. AI algorithms can improve delivery routes. They cut fuel use and predict traffic. This ensures timely delivery of farm products. IoT sensors can track the condition of goods in transit. They monitor temperature and humidity and give live updates to stakeholders. These technologies prevent spoilage. They ensure that products reach their destination in the best condition. Better logistics also means that farmers can rely on them to get their products to market. This reduces losses and boosts their revenue.

    • Data Analytics:

    Data analytics is key. It helps us understand consumer behavior and predict demand. It also helps us manage stock levels. Companies like Pula provide data-driven solutions. They are for inventory management and marketing in Nigeria. By studying consumer data, farmers and distributors can spot trends. They can forecast demand and adjust their plans based on it. Data analytics also helps in making targeted marketing campaigns. It ensures the right products reach the right customers at the right time. This data-driven approach leads to better resource management, reduced waste, and increased sales.

    • Mobile Payment Solutions:

    Mobile payment solutions are transforming the agricultural distribution and marketing landscape in Nigeria. Platforms like Paga and Paystack enable smooth financial transactions. They connect farmers, distributors, and consumers. Mobile payments are secure and convenient. They help farmers get paid for their produce without cash. This reduces the risks of cash transactions. These solutions also make microfinancing easier. It helps farmers to access credit and invest in their operations. Adding mobile payments to e-commerce can help farmers. It can simplify sales and improve cash flow.

    • Digital Marketing and Social Media:

    Digital marketing and social media are powerful tools. They promote agricultural products and reach a wider audience. Farmers and businesses in Africa are using Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. They use these platforms to market their products. They can also share their farming practices and connect with buyers. Digital marketing strategies include search engine optimisation (SEO). They also include pay-per-click (PPC) advertising and email marketing. They increase online visibility and drive traffic to e-commerce platforms. Farmers can use these tools to build their brand. They can attract more customers and boost their sales.

    Investment Potential

    Investing in e-commerce platforms pays off. The same is true for logistics tech, data analytics, mobile payments, and digital marketing. Demand is growing for direct-to-consumer sales and efficient distribution. The global e-commerce in agriculture market is expected to grow a lot. The growth will be driven by more internet use and consumer preference for online shopping. In Africa, these technologies offer a promising way to transform farming. They will make it more efficient and profitable. Investors can profit from these chances. They can benefit from the fast growth of the agricultural e-commerce market. They can also help modernize Africa’s agricultural value chain.

     Key Considerations for Tech Investors

    1. Market Research:

    Thorough market research is essential. It helps us understand the specific needs and challenges of agriculture. This involves analysing the local farms. It means finding pain points and the gaps tech can fill. In Africa, for instance, issues include limited access to good seeds, bad roads, and unpredictable weather. Investors need to gather data on these challenges through surveys, interviews, and field studies. By deeply understanding the market, investors can find the best technology. It will solve the unique needs of African farmers. This will ensure that their investments are targeted and effective. 

    2. Scalability:

    Evaluating technology’s scalability is crucial. It ensures its potential for widespread use in agriculture. Scalable technologies can grow and adapt to increasing demand without significant additional costs. Investors should check if a technology can grow from small pilot projects. It should be able to become large implementations. For example, precision agriculture tools like soil sensors and drones should be cheap and easy to use. This would encourage smallholder farmers to adopt them. These farmers make up a big part of Nigeria’s agriculture. Scalability also involves considering the infrastructure and support systems. They are needed for the technology to work at larger scales.

    3. Regulatory Environment:

    Understanding the rules of the agricultural industry is vital. It is key for adopting and using new technologies. Each country has its own rules about GMOs, pesticides, and data privacy. In Nigeria, regulatory bodies oversee farming and food. They include the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC). They also include the Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON). Investors must stay informed about these rules. They must also ensure that their tech follows local laws and standards. They should also engage with policymakers and regulators. They should advocate for policies that help tech innovation in farming.

    4. Partnerships:

    It is essential to collaborate with agricultural experts, farmers, and industry stakeholders. This collaboration ensures that technology meets practical needs. It also ensures that the technology can be integrated into existing systems. Local universities and research institutions can be valuable partners. They can provide insights into the latest trends and innovations in agriculture. Engaging with farmers through cooperatives and associations helps investors understand on-the-ground facts. They also get feedback on how well their technologies work. These collaborations can also facilitate training and education programmes to help farmers adopt and utilise new technologies. Strong partnerships ensure that tech solutions fit the local context. They are more likely to succeed.

    5. Sustainability and Impact:

    Considering the sustainability and impact of the technology is crucial for long-term success and positive contributions to the agricultural sector. Investors should evaluate how their technologies can promote sustainable farming practices, such as reducing water usage, minimising chemical inputs, and enhancing soil health. Technologies that support environmental sustainability are more likely to gain acceptance among farmers and regulators. Additionally, assessing the social impact of the technology, such as improving farmer livelihoods, creating job opportunities, and enhancing food security, is important. Investors should prioritise technologies that offer significant social and environmental benefits, contributing to the overall well-being of the agricultural community and ensuring long-term viability.

     Case Studies

     Case Study 1: Hello Tractor (Nigeria)

    a tractor in a stubble field in gloucestershire. - farmtractor stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images

    Hello Tractor, a Nigerian start-up, is revolutionising farming with its “Uber for tractors” model. By connecting tractor owners with smallholder farmers through a mobile app, Hello Tractor is helping to increase farm productivity and reduce labour costs. This technology enables farmers to access machinery that was previously unaffordable, boosting their yields and incomes.

     Case Study 2: mPedigree (Ghana)

    mPedigree, a Ghanaian start-up, leverages mobile and web technologies to combat counterfeit agricultural inputs. By using unique codes on product packaging that can be verified via SMS, mPedigree ensures that farmers receive genuine seeds, fertilisers, and pesticides. This innovation not only protects farmers from the harmful effects of counterfeit products but also builds trust in the supply chain. mPedigree’s solution is crucial in markets where counterfeit agricultural inputs are prevalent, and it helps ensure that farmers can rely on the quality and effectiveness of the products they purchase.

     Case Study 3: Farmdrive (Kenya)

    FarmDrive, another innovative Kenyan start-up, is using data analytics and mobile technology to provide smallholder farmers with access to credit. Many farmers in Africa struggle to obtain loans due to a lack of formal credit history. FarmDrive addresses this by collecting data on farmers’ operations, such as their income, expenses, and crop yields, through mobile phones. This data is then used to build credit profiles and connect farmers with financial institutions willing to offer loans. By improving access to finance, FarmDrive is enabling farmers to invest in better inputs and technologies, thereby increasing their productivity and incomes.

    Case Study 4: Aerobotics (South Africa)

    Aerobotics, a South African start-up, uses aerial imagery and machine learning to provide farmers with detailed insights into their crops. Through the use of drones and satellite imagery, Aerobotics’ platform monitors crop health, identifies pest infestations, and detects nutrient deficiencies. Farmers receive actionable insights via a mobile app, allowing them to make informed decisions and take timely actions to optimise their yields. This precision agriculture technology is revolutionising farming practices in South Africa by making them more data-driven and efficient.


    The agricultural value chain offers a wealth of opportunities for tech investors. Investors can help modernise farming and make big profits. They should focus on new ideas in input supply, production, processing, and distribution. The sector keeps embracing technology. The potential for growth and impact is huge. This makes it an exciting frontier for tech investment.

    Investors who understand the unique dynamics of the agricultural value chain and leverage technological advancements to address its challenges will be well-positioned to lead the next wave of agricultural innovation.

    Image Source: Getty Images

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